一個文法還是語法的問題

一個文法還是語法的問題

Jay Fei » 週四 10月 01, 2020 3:43 pm

請教各位先進,

我對下面的選擇題答案有疑問?

圖檔

這一題的答案是 B。
圖檔

= = = = = = = = = =

可是我看看其他的選項,沒什麼錯誤。
因為還原整句,可以寫成如下:

( A ) More time is needed to make our plan well.

( C ) It's important to work together to make our plan work well.
( 這句有點不順口,因為有兩個 to + Verb. ,
但是我看不出來有什麼文法錯誤。)

( D ) Using our time is necessary to make our plan work well.

此外, to + Verb. 常常代表 in order to ,
在此種情況下,好像這四個選項都可以採用。

但正確答案在解答上是 ( B)

我不清楚為什麼?

不知各位先進的意見如何?

預先謝謝各位先進的回答
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Re: 一個文法還是語法的問題

Jay Fei » 週五 10月 02, 2020 7:22 pm

我找到一個比較準確的說法,在另外一個論壇上面。
那個論壇都是成年人居多,是一個喜愛閱讀性質的論壇,有點水準的。
所以可信度很高。

那邊網友給我的答覆如下,各位網兄與網姊可以參考一下。

= = = = = = = = = = = = = =

英文的第三人稱代名詞與中文不同,需要區分男女,那當不知是男或是女,或有男也有女時,怎麼辦呢?

此時可用 it his/her their 來表達,例如,你看到我的小嬰兒好可愛,想問年紀,可是不知是男是女

可以說 How old is it? 我當然知道我的小嬰兒是男是女, 所以我會回答 She is 10 months old.

所以以下2種說法都可以
Everybody should do their best to make our plan work well.
Everybody should do his/her best to make our plan work well.

當你的 everybody 是指涉某特定全男或全女團體時,就必須說
Everybody in 北一女 should do her best to make our plan work well.
 
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Re: 一個文法還是語法的問題

Jay Fei » 週五 10月 02, 2020 8:17 pm

關於這個問題的四個選項,其他的網友有一些討論,順便也貼給各位先進參考一下。

基本上,這個題目不是一個出得很好的題目,也引起那個論壇網友的一些看法,略有點瑕疵,
所以搞不好是我們使用中國話為母語的人仕出的題目。

討論的意見貼在下面,供各位先進參考看看。

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

回答 A 的討論如下:

這四種選擇其實都說得通。
這題的目的應該是要考生選出哪一句是『命令句』。

= = =

仁兄您好,

為什麼要用命令句作為適當的答案,是因為文義解釋的關係嗎?

= = =

應該是文意的關係。
因為一旦把:
A: more time is needed 改成 we need more time
C: it is important to work together 改成 we should work together
D: using our time is necessary 改成 we should spend more of our time

用主動、命令的語氣會更適合


= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

回答 B 的討論如下:

我自己的想法是to make要往後抓主語做動作的是誰。
A是more time無法make plan work well,
C的it 是虛主詞不夠直接會讓人混淆,D是動名詞做主語也不對。
只有B的everyone合適。

班門弄斧,有錯還請見諒

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

回答 C 的討論如下:

個人覺得答案是B,因為他要考的是兩者的關聯性,
如果你把他們這兩句反過來的話也說的通 (如果不加逗號)

(在美國待久了,文法都忘記了XD,不過這個應該是他們想要考的東西)

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

回答 D 的討論如下:

個人認為從語意來說,只有B合理。

B也是英文電影/電視/書中,比較有機會看到的口語說法。

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

回答 E 的討論如下:

我很久以前托福文法滿分. 我是靠感覺的. 用分析的並不是 太好的方法

現在回頭過來看. 很多題目出的並不完美.
(譬如你這一題. 所以我就不討論了...而且我說的也不一定對)

如果是托福之類的正式考題還好. 參考書. 模擬券. 學校考試...........
不完美的太多了

不要去鑽研這些不完美的題目.
花30分鐘研究這一題不如花30分鐘讀好的文章或句型

我覺得句型很重要. 句型=文法

譬如
looking forward to V-ing
不要死背這個文法.
你就找10-20個例句. 反覆的朗讀

這個我覺得不錯. 我幫小孩準備例句找到的. 例句新. 例句多
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/zht/

台灣字典的例句都是幾十年前的. 沒更新跟上時代.


= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

回答 F 的討論如下:

問了兩個美國人,都選B,只知道 D 是絕對錯的,
但是叫他們將 A 和 C 說個所以然,又說不清楚,他們是不管文法的。

You are right, looks like trick questions. If you read them they sound ok. I think the sentences need “modifiers”

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

回答 F 的討論如下:

A C D 的錯誤在主詞不對, 以你的還原說明如下

( A ) More time is needed to make our plan well.

More time 沒有能力去 make plan 應改成

We need more time to make our plan well.

( C ) It's important to work together to make our plan work well.

It 或者 work together 沒有能力去 make plan 應改成

We should work together to make our plan work well.
It's important that we work together to make our plan work well.

( D ) Using our time is necessary to make our plan work well.

Using our time 沒有能力去 make plan 應改成

We need using our time to make our plan work well.

more time, it, using our time 是代名詞或名詞片語,可以當主詞,
但是它們是抽象的概念沒有去make plan 的能力。
( 以上的這個看法是很主觀的 )

只有everyone 有能力去make plan

S+V+O結構沒有錯,但是語意要符合英文的邏輯

( 我個人是覺得用主詞來說明選項錯誤的說服力不高,
因為那個是屬於語言涵義的說法,
這個太過於主觀,而且英美人仕通常也不會這樣看。
前面有人請教英美人士過了。
沒有這個想法。

但是我還是貼出來,
給各位先進對這題有興趣的人看一看。當作個參考,就看看就好了。
未必對的講法。 )

因為我以前也幫美國公司工作過,公司位於 LA 的一家 3C 的通路商。
所以對於美國略知一二。
我當時是跨國採購人員,奔走於台灣,香港與大陸等地的工廠,幫公司尋找產品供應商。
等於是中美人仕間的溝通橋樑。
俗話稱我們這工作為買辦,
現代用語是 IPO ( International Procurment Officer ),
如果看高楊的歷史小說像胡雪巖這部小說,
會看到一個名詞叫作 "康百度" ( comprado ,葡萄牙文)

這個 "康百度" 名詞的相關連結如下:

https://sa.sogou.com/sgsearch/sgs_tc_ne ... ser_type=1
中国历史上的买办、买办资本、买办资产阶级,晚清四大买办

https://new.qq.com/omn/20181112/20181112A10DF6.html
“官商”郑观应:考不中秀才又如何,做买办照样升官发财

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

回答 G 的討論如下:

Everyone 的代名詞 就是用 they , them , their.
單數是指他後面的動詞要用單數
Everyone does their best.
題目有should , 所以才 Everyone should do.....

維基百科 可以看看

https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%8D%95%E6%95%B0they
單數 they

單數they是they或它的詞形變化形式(例如them或their)的用法,
用於指單獨一個人,作為單數形式。

典型地,這種情況出現於不確定的性別,例句:

"Everyone returned to their seats."[1]

"Somebody left their umbrella in the office. Would they please collect it."[2]

"If a person doesn't want to go on living, they are often very difficult to help."[2]

"The patient should be told at the outset how much they will be required to pay."[3]

"But a journalist should not be forced to reveal their sources."[3]

類似地,這種情況也可以應用於派生詞,例如themself或themselves。

這種用法的一個原因是英語沒有專用於不確定性別的單數人稱代詞。

有些情況,這種用法可以被解釋為一種名義約定,因為如everyone之類的單詞,
雖然在語法上是單數形式,但事實上卻是複數的意義。

這種用法逐漸變多的一個原因可能是20世紀的性別包容語言運動,
但是它已經被有影響力的作家使用了好幾個世紀。

雖然單數they的用法歷史悠久,
並且在日常英語中廣泛使用,
但是這種用法從19世紀末開始還是一直受到批評,並且大家的認可度也不同。

( 中間有一個表格,很難貼上來,就不貼了,
所以要看完全部的文章的話,
還要請各位先進回去找維基百科的原始連結才能看到全部的文字內容 )

單數they與「正常」的複數they有相同的詞形變化形式,即them和their。
它們通常都使用相同的動詞形式,
也就是說「when I tell someone a joke they laughs」是不規範的。

反身代詞themselves有時也被使用,但是還有一個可選的反身代詞形式themself。
雖然themself有歷史悠久並且在20世紀80年代復活了,
但是它還是依然較少使用,並且只被少數人認可。[4][5][6]
它在指代性別不明的單個人的時候有時使用,
因為這時候複數形式themselves看起來不協調,例如

"It is not an actor pretending to be Reagan or Thatcher, it is, in grotesque form,
the person themself."—Hislop (1984);[7]引自 Fowler's[8]

單數themself在加拿大聯邦法律文本中被系統化地使用,用於區別於複數themselves。

"Where a recipient of an allowance under section 4 absents themself from Canada [...]"—War Veterans Allowance Act, section 14.[9]

"[...] the following conditions are imposed on a person or group of persons in respect of whom a deposit is required: [...] to present themself or themselves at the time and place that an officer or the Immigration Division requires them to appear to comply with any obligation imposed on them under the Act."—Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations, section 48.[10]

用法

更多資訊:en:Gender-specific and gender-neutral pronouns

知名作家的一些老舊用法

早在14世紀的中古英語,they就一直被用於單數形式。[11][12] 在許多知名作家的著作中都能看來這種用法,
包括傑弗里·喬叟、威廉·莎士比亞、簡·奧斯丁、威廉·梅克比斯·薩克雷和蕭伯納:

"And whoso fyndeth hym out of swich blame,
They wol come up . . ."
—Chaucer, The Pardoner's Prologue (c. 1395);[13] 引用自Jespersen在《Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage》。[14]

" 'Tis meet that some more audience than a mother, since nature makes them partial, should o'erhear the speech."— Shakespeare, Hamlet (1599);[15]引用自《Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage》。[16]

"If a person is born of a . . . gloomy temper . . . they cannot help it."— Chesterfield, 《Letter to his son》 (1759);[17]引用自《Fowler's》。[18]
"Now nobody does anything well that they cannot help doing"— Ruskin, 《The Crown of Wild Olive》 (1866);[19]引用自《Fowler's》。[18]

"Nobody in their senses would give sixpence on the strength of a promissory note of the kind."— Bagehot, 《The Liberal Magazine》 (1910);[20]引用自《Fowler's》。[21]

"I would have every body marry if they can do it properly."— Austen, 《Mansfield Park》 (1814);[22]引用自《Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage》。[14]

Caesar: "No, Cleopatra. No man goes to battle to be killed."
Cleopatra: "But they do get killed"
—Shaw, Caesar and Cleopatra (1901);[23]引用自《Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage》。[16]

"A person can't help their birth."— W. M. Thackeray, Vanity Fair (1848);[24]引用自《Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage》。[14]

同時,除了使用they,使用代詞he作為(據稱的)性別中性代詞也被認可[25],如下所述:

"Suppose the life and fortune of every one of us would depend on his winning or losing a game of chess."— Thomas Huxley, A Liberal Education (1868);[26]引自Baskervill.[27]

"If any one did not know it, it was his own fault."— George Washington Cable, Old Creole Days (1879);[28]引自Baskervill.[27]

"No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality."— Article 15, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948).[29]

在威廉·梅克比斯·薩克雷的著作中,兩個都出現過:

"A person can't help their birth."—Rosalind in W. M. Thackeray, Vanity Fair (1848);[24]引用自《牛津英語詞典》於Curzan在《Gender Shifts in the History of English》。[30]


"Every person who turns this page has his own little diary."— W. M. Thackeray, On Lett's Diary (1869);[31]引用自Baskervill, 《An English Grammar》。[32]
並且威廉·卡克斯頓寫道:

"Eche of theym sholde . . . make theymselfe redy."— Caxton, 《Sonnes of Aymon》 (c. 1489)[33]
alongside

"Who of thise wormes shall be byten, He must have triacle; Yf not that, he shall deye."— Caxton, 《Dialogues in French and English》 (c. 1483).[34]

19世紀的性別通用he的趨勢

在非正式英語中使用he而非they的用法的倡導,可以在18世紀中葉找到,
在Ann Fisher的《A New Grammar》中寫道:

性別通用名使用陽性,可以理解為男性與女性,
正如any Person who knows what he says [35] (引自Ostade[36])

1895年的語法(Baskervill, W.M.與Sewell, J.W.的
《An English Grammar for the Use of High School, Academy and College Class》)
標記了單數they的通用的用法,但是推薦用性別通用he,基於數協議:

指代前面出現過的泛指代詞[例如everybody]或者被泛指形容詞修飾的名詞的另一種方法,
是在後面使用複數代詞。
這並不是最好的用法,邏輯上顯然需要使用單數代詞,
但是這種結構經常出現於前面說的包括或隱射兩個性別。
陽性詞並不能表示陰性,並且應該避免 his or her 的表示法,因為很笨重.

——Baskervill,An English Grammar[37]
Baskervill給出了知名作家的使用單數they的一些例子,包括

"Every one must judge according to their own feelings."— Byron, Werner (1823),[38] quoted as "Every one must judge of [sic] their own feelings."[37]

"Had the Doctor been contented to take my dining tables as any body in their senses would have done . . ."— Austen, Mansfield Park (1814);[39] [37]

"If the part deserve any comment, every considering Christian will make it to themselves as they go . . ."— Defoe, The Family Instructor (1816);[40] [37]

"Every person's happiness depends in part upon the respect they meet in the world . . ."— Paley,[41] [37]
但是他更喜歡使用he:
[. . .] 當前面說的包括男性與女性的時候,
或者是一個泛指性的單詞的時候,最好的方法是後續代詞使用陽性單數代詞 [. . .]

—Baskervill, An English Grammar[32]

1850年,英國議會通過了一個法案,其中說了,在議會的法案中使用的時候「陽性詞必須被視為包括女性」。[42][43]

據稱的性別中性的he的用法直到至少20世紀60年代還能用[25],雖然有一些he的用法後來因笨拙或愚蠢而被批評,例如指代:[16]

兩性的不確定的人:

"the ideal that every boy and girl should be so equipped that he shall not be handicapped in his struggle for social progress . . ."— C.C. Fries, American English Grammar, (1940).[44]

兩性的已知的人:

"She and Louis had a game—who could find the ugliest photograph of himself."— Joseph P. Lash, Eleanor and Franklin (1971)[45]

或者明顯可以假設為女人的不確定的人:

". . . everyone will be entitled to decide for himself whether or not to have an abortion."— Albert Bleumenthal, N.Y. State Assembly (1975).[46]

據稱的性別中性的he的當代用法

當代著作在指代性別通用或不確定的前面出現的詞的時候,
有時還是可以看到使用he。

有時指代的人幾乎可以確定為男的,例如

"The patient should be informed of his therapeutic options."— 關於前列腺癌的文本 (2004)[47]
有時前面出現的詞指代的人很可能只是男的或者這種職業傳統上只有男性人員:

"It wouldn't be as if the lone astronaut would be completely by himself." (2008)[48]
"Kitchen table issues . . . are ones the next president can actually do something about if he actually cares about it. More likely if she cares about it!"— Hillary Rodham Clinton (2008)[49]

還有其它情況,前面的詞可能指代:

一個不確定的人,兩個性別都有可能:

"Now, a writer is entitled to have a Roget on his desk."—Barzun (1985);[50] quoted in Merriam-Webster's Concise Dictionary of English Usage[14]

"They ‧ re going to appoint a new manager. Well I hope he does a bett
 
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