he said he is/was a doctor....?

he said he is/was a doctor....?

台灣英語網1.0 » 週四 8月 20, 2015 6:29 pm

這兩句"indirect speech"文法對不對?有何差異呢?

He said he is a doctor.
He said he was a doctor.

兩句文法都對,至於差異性的話要看情況。如果只是單純的在引述一件事,那麼講話的人可以自己決定要用"is"還是"was"。比如我認為他是醫生沒錯啊,是事實,他講話那時是醫生,我現在引述這句話時他還是醫生,未來他也是醫生(十年,二十年後?那就不需要考慮了,只要以一般日常經驗判斷他仍會是醫生就行了),那麼我可以用is來強調。如果我只是要單純把這當成一個過去事件來說,那麼用was就可以了。

不過呢,還有一個情況,那就是當引述的人不同意/不相信他聽到的話(或是借用這話當成是自己要表達的意見),因為有存疑,所以不能把這事當成事實來講,因此這時用過去式was來表達較好。

加點內文會清楚些:

He said he was a doctor. I don't believe it one bit.

要再次提醒的是這部分只適用於引述/轉述的情形(indirect speech),其它情形的話子句裡頭的動詞時態仍是要和主要動詞的時態一致(除非是敘述恆久事實,這時用現在式)。

=====================================================
From "Practical English Usage" by M.S., 3rd edition
278 indirect speech (5): advanced points
2 reporting present and future tenses

If somebody talked about a situation that has still not changed - that is to say, if the original speaker's present and future are still present and future - a reporter can often choose whether to keep the original speaker's tenses or to change them, after a past reporting verb. Both structures are common.

- DIRECT: The earth goes round the sun.
INDIRECT: He proved that the earth goes/went round the sun.

- DIRECT: How old are you?
INDIRECT: Are you deaf? I asked how old you are/were.

- DIRECT: It will be windy tomorrow.
INDIRECT: The forecast said it will/would be windy tomorrow.

We are more likely to change the original speaker's tenses if we do not agree with what he/she said, if we are not certain of its truth, or if we wish to make it ourselves.

The Greeks thought that the sun went round the earth. (NOT ... that the sun goes round the earth.)

She just said she was fourteen! I don't believe her for a moment.

He announced that profits were higher than forecast.
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Re: he said he is/was a doctor....?

台灣英語網1.0 » 週四 8月 20, 2015 6:29 pm

引文:
djyang 寫道:
這兩句"indirect speech"文法對不對?有何差異呢?

He said he is a doctor.
He said he was a doctor.

兩句文法都對,至於差異性的話要看情況。如果只是單純的在引述一件事,那麼 講話的人可以自己決定要用"is"還是"was...
這裡 講話的人指的是說或寫這整個句子的人,不是指句子裡的主詞He.
(DJ,因為He的動詞正好也是說(said),我怕有些初學者會搞錯,所以再說明清楚些)

引文:
We are more likely to change the original speaker's tenses if we do not agree with what he/she said, if we are not certain of its truth, or if we wish to make it ourselves.

The Greeks thought that the sun went round the earth. (NOT ... that the sun goes round the earth.)

She just said she was fourteen! I don't believe her for a moment.

He announced that profits were higher than forecast.

DJ:
照你的中文說明,及英文例句, change應該改為 keep才對,是嗎?
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Re: he said he is/was a doctor....?

台灣英語網1.0 » 週四 8月 20, 2015 6:29 pm

引文:
ruke0128 寫道:
引文: djyang 寫道:
We are more likely to change the original speaker's tenses if we do not agree with what he/she said, if we are not certain of its truth, or if we wish to make it ourselves.

The Greeks thought that the sun went round the earth. (NOT ... that the sun goes round the earth.)

She just said she was fourteen! I don't believe her for a moment.

He announced that profits were higher than forecast.

DJ:
照你的中文說明,及英文例句, change應該改為 keep才對,是嗎?

Ruke, 你可能沒弄清楚dj寫的意思.
引述的話語, 當時被引述者說的時候是現在式:
- 引述者不同意或存疑的話, 就change其時態為過去式;
- 引述者同意的話, 就keep其原有的現在式.
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Re: he said he is/was a doctor....?

台灣英語網1.0 » 週四 8月 20, 2015 6:29 pm

引文: Ruke, 你可能沒弄清楚dj寫的意思.
引述的話語, 當時被引述者說的時候 是現在式

我懂了,你這樣解釋那就合理了。
Thanks!
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Re: he said he is/was a doctor....?

台灣英語網1.0 » 週四 8月 20, 2015 6:29 pm

Hm... 看樣子我的中文要改進了.. :p Anyway, 以英文抄錄的部份為準。

我簡單的說:

比如昨天阿花介紹個女孩子給我認識,這女孩說"我洗腳水.."(還有人記得這意思嗎?:p -- 我19歲)

今天我把這事說給我室友聽(或是寫成文章之類的文字):
1. She said "I'm 19 years old". --> 這是direct speech (有引號"",表示直接100%重複這女孩說過的話)


2. 我"同意"她說的話 -- 比如單純提一提,寫寫啦,我並沒有對她說的話存疑,那麼我可以寫:(都是indirect speech ,因為沒有引號,不是100%字字重複這女孩所說的話)
- She said she is 19 years old.
- She said she was 19 years old.

注意喔,並不是"只能"用現在式 is 喔, 是 is / was 隨你用。

3. 我"不同意"她說的話 -- 比如我認為她看起來像三十多歲的女人了,我對她的話表示存疑,那麼我可以寫:(是indirect speech ,因為沒有引號,不是100%字字重複這女孩所說的話)

- She said she was 19 years old.... more like 30!
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